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Contribution: Discovery of Elements
Interestingly enough, Aristotle did not believe in atomic theory. He instead opted for "elemental composition," a belief that all matter is made of four things: water, fire, air, or earth. This is wrong, but at the time this interpretation was widely accepted because of Aristotle's reputation.
At best Aristotle can be attributed with "the discovery of elements," although none of his elements are on the periodic table, and unfortunately because of his popularity Aristotle's ideas actually slowed the progression of today's accepted atomic theory.
Information Credits: Galileo and Einstein